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B. Geographical

Ch'ang-an 長 安. IV, 2a. 102. Now Hsi-an-fu, Shen-hsi. Capital of the Early Han Empire. The ancient city was situated a little NW. of the modern hsien.

Chao 趙. I, 4b, 6b, 7a; II, 3a; III, 3b; IV, 5b, 6b, 7b. 12; 18; 19; 45; 89; 114; 116; 121. 1. Ancient state with its center near modern Chao-ch'êng-hsien, Shan-hsi. 2. Large state of the Chan Kuo period in S. part of Chih-li and N. part of Shan-hsi. 3. Kingdom under the Han comprising the Ch'in chün of Han-tan.

Ch'ao-hsien 朝 鮮. IV, 2a. 102 (note 12). Korea. See SC CXV.

Ch'ao Ko 朝 歌. IV, 4a. 109. Capital of Chou Hsin. Modern Ch'i-hsien, in Ho-nan.

Ch'ên 陳. IV, 8b. 123. Modern Ch'ên-chou, Ho-nan.

Chêng 鄭. I, 6b; II, 5a; IV, 6b. 18; 53; 116. K'ai-fêng and Chêng-chou region in Ho-nan. Chêng played an important role at the beginning of the Ch'un Ch'iu period. Greatly weakened by Ch'u, it was finally annexed by Han.

Chi 薊. I, 6b. 18. Important center in the old kingdom of Yen; controlling passes through the Great Wall. Chih-li.

Chi[-hsia] 稷 [下]. II, 9b. 66 (note S). Name of a gate of the capital city of Ch'i.

Ch'i 齊. I, 2b, 3b, 4b, 6ab; II, 3a, 5b, 9b, 10a; III, 2ab, 3b; IV, 2a, 8a. 8; 11; 12; 16; 18; 33; 45; 54; 66; 67; 68; 82; 85; 89; 102; 104. Important feudal kingdom along the coast of the Yellow Sea. Shan-tung. Center of Confucian traditions.

Chiang 江. II, 4b. 51. The Yang-tzŭ River.

Chiang-nan 江 南. I, 2b. 8. The bamboo-producing country S. of the Chiang.

Chiang Hu 江 湖. I, 6b, 7a. 20. Rivers and lakes of the Yang-tzŭ basin.

Ch'iang 羌. I, 5a; III, 4b. 14; 92. Barbarians of the W.; Tibetan tribes.

Chiao Chih 交 趾. I, 7a. 20. Han chün established in 111 B.C. Extreme S. of China, including parts of Annam.

Ch'ien-sh'êng 千 乘. II, 7b. 60. Chün and hsien under the Han. N. of Kao-yüan-hsien, Shantung.

Chih 軹. I, 6b. 18. A city NW. of Ch'i-yüan, Ho-nan, controlling an important pass into the uplands of Shan-hsi.

Chin 晉. II, 5a, 11a; IV, 3a, 5a, 5b, 31; 53; 71; 104; 111; 114. Leading state of the Ch'un Ch'iu period. Like Ch'in, it grew at the expense of the outlying Barbarians.

Ch'in 秦. I, 8a, 9b, 13b; II, 1a,b, 2a,b, 3a,b, 4a, 5a, 10ab, 11a, 13b; III 1a; IV, 2a, 5a,b, 7a,b, 8b. 23; 28; 33; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 46; 49; 53; 68; 71; 102; 112; 113; 121; 123. 1. The W. march of the Chou Empire 2. The important state of the Ch'un Ch'iu and Chan Kuo periods. 3. First empire and dynasty of united China. 4. Often, Ch'in Shih-huang-ti, first Emperor of the Ch'in dynasty, 220—206 B.C.

Ching 涇. II, 9a. 65. Important river in Shen-hsi, affluent of the Wei.

Ching 荊. I, 2b; II, 9a; IV, 2a. 8; 53; 64; 102. One of the "Nine Chou". South of the Han (Erh Ya). Included Hu-nan, Hu-pei, parts of Ssŭ-ch'uan, Kuei-chou and Kuang-tung. Another name for the kingdom of Ch'u.

Ching Yang 荊 陽 [揚]. I, 6b. 18. Hu-pei or Middle and Lower Yang-tzŭ valley.

Chiung 卭. I, 7b; IV, 2a. 21; 102. Small Barbarian state, with its center SE. of modern Hsi-ch'ang-hsien, Ssŭ-ch'uan.

Cho 涿. I, 6b. 18. Han chün in modern Chih-li with center at Cho-hsien.

Chou 周. I, 6a, 7a, 8a. 16; 18; 20, 23. The territory properly the old Imperial domain along the Lo, and on both banks of the Yellow River within Ho-nan.

Chu 洙. II, 9b. 66. Small affluent of the Ssŭ.

Chü-ch'ü 具 區. II, 5b. 54. The lake between Wu and Yüeh (Erh Ya). The modern T'ai Hu 太 湖.

Chü-yeh 鉅 野. II, 5b. 54. Big marsh. Same as the Ta Yeh 大 野 of the Yü Kung. N. of the hsien of the same name in Shan-tung.

Ch'ü 胊. I, 8a. 23 (note 6). Also 30; 32; 33. Probably the Lin-ch'ü region 臨 胊 of Shantung, a salt producing district.

Ch'u 楚. I, 6b, 7a, 8a; II, 1b, 3a, 5b, 10ab; III, 2a, 3b, IV, 2a, 3a, 8a. 18; 19; 22; 33; 42; 45; 55; 64; 68; 85, 89; 102; 122. Ancient kingdom in the middle course of the Yang-tzŭ. One of the strongest rivals of Ch'in, it was first to be restored as an independent state after Ch'in's downfall.

Ch'u 楚. II, 4b, 5a. 51; 52. Han kingdom. Established by Kao Ti and abolished by Hsüan Ti. Its center was at modern T'ungshan-hsien, Chiang-su.

Ch'üan T'ai 泉 臺. II, 13b. 78 (note 4). Tower in Lang 郎, NE. of Yü-t'ai. Shan-tung.

Ch'ui Chi 垂 棘. IV, 5b. 111. Ancient locality in Chin, famous for its gems.

Chung Kuo 中 國. I, 1b, 2a, 5a, 7b; II, 12b; III, 3b, 4a; IV, 1ab. 3; 5; 76; 90; 99. China, as opposed to the Barbarians. The central plain of China. The provinces of the interior 內 郡, contrasted to the marches.

Chung Shan 中 山. I, 1a; II, 6a. 19; 56. Ancient state, modern Ting-hsien, Chih-li. Han kingdom. Western part of modern Chinghai-tao, Chih-li.

Ch'ung 崇. I, 13b. 37. Feudal state in Shen-hsi (Yin dynasty).

Chün 郡 [and Kuo 國]. 2; 9; 10. Provinces and demesnes. The administrative divisions of the Early Han Empire. Cf. Wieger, Textes hist., I, 332—335, and chart IX.

Erh Chou 二 周. I, 6b. 18. Western and Eastern Chou: the first with the capital at Hao Ching (near Hsi-an), the second at Lo-yang. Also Kuan-chung 關 中 in this period.

Fêng 豐. I, 13b. 38. Residence of the first Chous. NW. of Hsian-fu. Wên Wang moved his capital from Ch'êng 程 to Fêng in the XXXth year of Chou Hsin (Chu Shu Chi Nien,vi.).

Han 韓. I, 6b, 7ab; IV, 4b. 18; 19; 20; 110. Kingdom of the Chan Kuo period, carved out of the old Chin state. N. Ho-nan, S. Shan-hsi.

Han 漢. I, 3c, 5c, 9b, 3b. 11; 15; 19; 28. The river Han and its basin; also China as of the Han dynastic period (206, [202] B.C.—220 A.D.).

Han-tan 邯 鄲. I, . 18. Capital of the old state of Chao. Modern Kwang-p'ing-fu, Chih-li. Gateway to the NE. highway.

Hê 貉. 38. Cf. Man 蠻.

Ho pei 河 北. II, 3a. 45. North of the Yellow River. The Ordos and Mongolia.

Hsi Ho 西 河. II, 1a, b. 41. (note 3); 42. The territory W. of the Huang Ho which Ch'in conquered from Wei.

Hsieh 薛. II, 10b. 68. Ancient kingdom destroyed by Ch'i in the Chan Kuo period. SW. of T'êng-hsien in Shan-tung.

Hsiung Nu 凶 奴. I, 1b, 2a, 5a; II, 12b; IV, 2a. 3; 5; 14; 37; 38; 76; 101. See p. 74, note 1. The nomadic peoples of the N. commonly identified with the Huns.

Hsüan Fang 宣 房. 1, 6a. 17 (note 4). Pavilion, built on the dam by means of which the disastrous Huang Ho flood of 132 BC. was stopped (Cf. Chavannes, Mém. hist., III, p. 536).

Hu 胡. I, 5a; II, 12b; III, 4b; IV, 1ab, 2a. 14; 38; 39; 45; 92; 100; 101. Generic term for Barbarians, especially those of the N.

Hu 胡. II, 10b. 70. N. part of Shan-hsi.

Huai 淮. II, 4b, 9a. 51; 65. The great river flowing through Ho-nan and An-hui.

Huai pei 淮 北. II, 10b. 68. The country N. of the Huai River; conquered by Ch'i from Ch'u, in the latter Chan Kuo period.

Huang 黃. I, 7a. 20. Hsien in Têng-chou, Shan-tung. Capital of the ancient state of Lai.

Hung-mên 鴻 門. IV, 7a. 119 and note 1.

I 夷. I, 10a, 13a; II, 3a, 4a, 9a; IV, 2a. 29; 36; 37, 39; 45; 48; 102. Generic term for the Barbarians surrounding China.

Ju Han 汝 漢. I, 5a. 14 (note 7). The basins of the Ju and the Han rivers.

Kuei-chi 會 稽. II, 5a. 52. Chün and principality under the Han, comprising E. part of Chiang-su and W. part of Chê-chiang.

Kuei-lin 桂 林. I, 5b, 6b. 15; 18. Chün established by Ch'in. Comprised the modern Kuei-lin-tao and Ts'ang-wu-tao in Kuang-hsi.

K'un Shan 昆 山 [崑 崙]. I, 5b 7b. 15; 21. K'un Lun mountains.

Kuo 虢. IV, 5b. 114. Ancient state, occupying the present P'inglu-hsien, Shan-hsi.

Kuo 國 [and Chün 郡]. Cf. Chün 郡.

Lai 萊. I, 7a. 20. Ancient Barbarian state in Têng-chou, Shantung. By Lai Huang, the N. coast of Shan-tung is apparently meant.

Li-ch'iu 黎 丘. II, 10b. 70. Ancient locality near modern Yü-hsien in Ho-nan. In Confucius' time, part of Ch'ên.

Li Shan 歷 山. I, 4a; IV, 4a. 12; 108. Mountain near I-翼 ch'êng, Shan-hsi, where Shun farmed.

Liang 梁. I, 7a; II, 10b. 19; 20; 70. Another name of the Chan Kuo state of Wei (from its capital Ta Liang 大 梁, modern K'ai-fêng-hsien).

Lin T'ao 臨 洮. IV, 2a. 102. The important locality near modern Min- 岷 hsien, Kan-su. Gateway to the West. Connection between this Lin T'ao and the conquest of Korea is not apparent.

Lin Tsê [Tzŭ] 臨 淄. I, 6b; II, 10a. 18; 67. Important city in Shan-tung. Capital of the kingdom of Ch'i.

Ling Yang 陵 陽. I, 6b. 19. Mountain near Hsüan-ch'êng-hsien, An-hui.

Lu 魯. I, 6a, 7a, 11a; II, 9b, 10a; IV, 8a. 16; 20; 31; 66; 68; 79; 114. Ancient kingdom in Shan-tung; occupied the territory from Yen-chou to T'êng-hsien and Ssŭ-shui-hsien.

Lun T'ai 輪 臺. IV, 1b. 100. Under the Han, a Chinese colony in modern Hsin-chiang. Identified with the present Bugur.

Lung 隴. I. 2b, 7a. 8; 20. W. part of Shen-hsi and part of E. Kan-su.

Lü [Chiu] 莒. II, 10a. 67. Modern Lü-hsien in Shan-tung.

Lü Liang 呂 梁. I, 10b. 30. The Lung Mên gorge on the Huang Ho.

Mai 貊. 76. Cf. Man 蠻.

Man 蠻. I, 10a; II, 12b. 29; 76. Term generally applied to S. Barbarians or Aborigines.

Mêng Ching 孟 津. I, 6a. 17 (note 6). Important ford on the Huang Ho, S. of modern Mêng-hsien, Ho-nan.

Mêng-chu 孟 諸. II, 5b. 54; 55. One of the big marshes of the Empire. NE. of Shang-ch'iu-hsien, Ho-nan.

O-pang 阿 房. II, 13b. 80 (note 1). Famous palace built by Ch'in Shih Huang-ti some 30 li W. of Hsi-an-fu.

Ou-lo 甌 駱. IV, 2a. 102. Tribes of Southern China and Annam (Cf. SC CXIII).

Pa 巴. II, 6a; IV, 2a. 56; 102. Ancient kingdom and Han chün in Ssŭ-ch'uan. Modern Chia-ling-tao and Tung-ch'uan-tao.

P'an Hsi 磻 溪. II, 9a. 64 (note 5). Small river in Shen-hsi, affluent of the Wei.

Pao 亳. I, 5b. 15. Same as 薄, capital of Ch'êng T'ang. Modern Shang-ch'iu, Ho-nan.

P'êng Ch'ih 彭 池. IV, 7a. 118. Same as Mien 黽 (or 澠) Ch'ih (So-yin Commentary to SC LXVIII). a hsien in Ho-nan-fu, Ho-nan.

San Chin 三 晉. II, 10a; IV, 5b. 68; 113. Han, Wei and Chao, the three states of the Chan Kuo period, after the break-up of Chin.

San Ch'uan 三 川. I, 6b. 18. "The Three Rivers", for the Western Chou: the Ching, Wei, and Lo rivers; for the Eastern Chou: the I, Lo and Yellow rivers. Synonym for "Metropolitan district".

San Fu 三 輔. III, 1b. 83. The "Metropolitan district", corresponding to the modern Kuan-chung-tao, Shen-hsi.

Shan-shui 扇 水. I, 12ab. 34; 35. As a place name, not identified.

Shan tung 山 東. I, 4b, 9b; II, 4b. 16; 28; 51. East of the mountains (the T'ai-hang range). Modern Shan-tung and S. Chih-li.

Shang 商. II, 3b. 46. The modern Shang-chou 商 州 in Shen-hsi. Cf. Yü Shang 於 商.

Shang-ts'ai 上 蔡. IV, 7a. 119 (note 2). Modern Shang-ts'ai, or Hsin-ts'ai, in Ho-nan. Shang Yang's birthplace.

Shih-ku 石 鼓. I, 12a. 35. "Stone-drums", a name not identified.

Shih-pi 什 辟 [also given as 斗 辟]. IV, 2a, 2b. 101; 103; 104. The expression may indicate simply waste lands, desert 荒 僻

Shu 蜀. I, 2b, 3b, 7a, 9b; IV, 2a. 8; 11; 19; 20; 28; 102. Ancient kingdom and a Han chün. Ssŭ-ch'uan W. of the Ko-chien 閣 劍 pass, including the Ch'êng-tu district.

Shuo-fang 朔 方. I, 2a; IV, 2a. 5; 102. 1. The Northern marches of the Empire. 2. A Han chün established by Wu Ti; the Ordos country.

Ssŭ 泗. II, 9b, 10a. 66; 68. Anciently an important river in Shan-tung, affluent of the Huai. In the Ch'un Ch'iu period, it was the chief artery of intercourse between the petty Shan-tung states.

Sui 隋 [隨]. I, 7a. 20. Ancient state. NW. of Tê-an in Hu-pei (modern Sui-hsien). Sui and T'ang having been the most important feudal kingdoms in the Eastern basin of the Han, their names remained to designate that region. Famous timber lands.

Sung 宋. I, 7a; II, 5b, 10ab. 19; 20; 54; 68; 70. Ancient kingdom with its center near Shang-ch'iu-hsien, Ho-nan, and extending into Chiang-su.

Ta-tsê 大 澤. IV, 8a. 123 (note 3). Ch'in-hsiang near Chi 蕲, An-hui.

Tai 代. II, 10b; III, 5b. 70; 95. Roughly the modern Yen-mêntao. Shan-hsi.

T'ai Shan 太 [泰] 山. IV, 5a, 6ab. 112 (note 8); 114; 115; 116. Famous mountain N. of Tai-an, Shan-tung.

Tan-chang 丹 章 [鄣]. I, 7a. 20. A chün called 丹 陽 in Wu Ti's time; the modern Hsüan-ch'êng, An-hui.

T'ang 唐. I, 7a, 8a. 20; 23. Ancient state, vassal of Ch'u. W. of Tê-an in Hu-pei.

T'ao 陶. I, 3b. 11. Modern Ting-t'ao-hsien, in Shan-tung.

Ti 狄. I, 7a. 39. Aboriginal tribes occupying the plateaux and slopes of Shan-hsi. Cf. Maspero, La Chine Antique, 5—11, for a description of these peoples and kindred tribes.

Tsao-yang 造 陽. IV, 2a, 2b. 101; 103; 104. Modern Huai-laihsien, Chih-li.

Ts'ao 曹. I, 7a. 20. Ancient state. Modern Ts'ao-chou, Shan-tung.

Tso 筰. I, 7b; IV, 2a, 21; 102 (note 7). Barbarian state in Ssŭ-ch'uan, modern Han-yüan-hsien.

Tsou 鄒. I, 7a; II, 10a. 20; 68. Chan Kuo state, same as Chu 邾 of the Ch'un Ch'iu period. Modern Tsou-hsien, Shan-tung.

Tung 'Chou 東 周. IV, 9a. 124. "Eastern Chou", with its capital at Lo-yang.

Tung Hai 東 海. I, 1b; II, 5a. 21; 52. 1. The Eastern Sea. 2. Han chün and principality, comprising parts of Shan-tung and Chiang-su, and with its center at T'an-hsien, Shan-tung.

Tung Yüeh 東 越. IV. 2a. 102. Barbarian kingdom, with its center at Min-hou-hsien, Fu-chien. Conquered by Wu Ti. SC CXIV.

Wan-ch'iu 宛 丘. I, 6b. 18. Capital of Ch'ên; the modern Ch'ên-chou.

Wei 魏. I, 6b; II, 13b; III, 3b; IV, 5a. 18; 46; 89; 110; 111. The territory of the ancient kingdom of Wei, one of the "Three Chin", N. of Ho-nan and S.W. of Shan-hsi.

Wei 衛. I, 7a; II, 9b, 11b. 19; 20; 66; 72; 73. Ancient state from Ta-ming-fu, Chih-li, to Huai-ch'ing, Shan-hsi.

Wei Mai 穢 貊. IV, 2a. 103. Tribes of Manchuria and N. Korea.

Wên 溫. I, 6b. 18. Important city on the highway from the Shan-hsi uplands to Ho-nan; modern Huai-ch'ing-fu, Ho-nan.

Wu 吳. I, 7a, 8a, 9b; II, 4ab, 11a. 20; 23; 30; 48; 51; 52; 72. 1. Ancient kingdom covering half of Chiang-su and parts of Chê-chiang. 2. Han kingdom comprising chiefly the Tang-yang and Yü-chang districts.

Yang 揚. I, 2b. 8. One of the "Nine Chou". S. of the Chiang (Erh Ya), Chiang-hsi, Fu-chien, and Chê-chiang.

Yang Chai 揚 翟. I, 6b. 18. Important city in Chêng. Capital of Han 韓. Modern Yü-hsien in Ho-nan.

Yen 兖. I, 2b. 8. One of the "Nine Chou". Between the Ch'i and the Ho (Erh Ya). Comprised parts of Shan-tung and Chih-li.

Yen 燕. I, 2b, 6b, 11b; II, 3a, 4a, 8b, 9a, 10a; IV, 2a. 8; 18; 33; 45; 48; 62; 64; 67; 102. Ancient kingdom. N. Chih-li. Extended its territory into S. Manchuria.

Yen-ling 延 陵. II, 11a. 72. Modern Wu-chin-hsien in Chiang-su. Fief of Chi Cha of Wu.

Yen Shan 嚴 山. I, 4a. 12. Also Yen 道 銅 山; more correctly Chuang 莊 Shan. A copper mountain in Shu (N. of modern Jung-ching-hsien, Ssŭ-ch'uan). In the Hou Han period, the character 莊 (taboo as being the personal name of Ming Ti) was changed to Yen.

Ying Ch'iu 營 丘. III, 2a. 85. The original fief of T'ai Kung. Center of the Ch'i kingdom. Identified with the later Lin Tzê.

Yu Tu 幽 都. I, 7a. 20. 1. "The dark North", Hyperborea. 2. An ancient locality identified with modern Wan-p'ing-hsien, Chih-li.

Yung 雍. I, 9b. 28. One of the "Nine Chou", comprising Kan-su and Shen-hsi.

Yung [Jung] Yang 榮 陽. I, 6b. 19. Important gateway on the Yellow River; K'ai-fêng-fu, Ho-nan.

Yü 虞. IV, 5b. 114. A small state of the Ch'un Ch'iu period. Identified with Yü-ch'êng in the P'ing-lu district, Shan-hsi.

Yü 豫. I, 2b. 8. One of the "Nine Chou". S. of the Ho (Erh Ya). Comprised Ho-nan and parts of Hu-pei, Chihli, and Shan-tung.

Yü Shang 於 商. II, 3b. 46. The fief which Shang Yang received. It included the region from Nei-hsiang, Ho-nan, to Shang-hsien, Shen-hsi. [The 安 after 於 商 in the text is apparently a mistake. 於 was often taken for a preposition (at, in). 安 was the capital city of Wei, captured by Ch'in. It is improbable that Shang Yang would have received it as a fief].

Yüan [Wan] 宛. I, 6a. 16. Capital of the Nan-yang 南 陽 chün, modern Nan-yang, Ho-nan.

Yüeh 越. II, 7a; J, 4a, 5b. 20; 39; 48; 54; 100; 102. 1. Ancient kingdom (Chiang-hsi and Chê-chiang). 2. Tribes of the SE. and S. [I, 13a, 36. III, 46; 92].

Yün-mêng 雲 夢. II, 5b. 54; 55. The lake country S. of modern Yün-mêng-hsien in Hu-pei.

Yün-yang 雲 陽. IV, 7a. 118 (note 4). NW. of Ch'un-hua-hsien, Shen-hsi.

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