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禁 耕 第 五
大 夫 曰 ： 「 家 人 有 寶 器 ， 尚 函 匣 而 藏 之 ， 況 人 主 之山 海 乎 ？ 夫 權 利 之 處 ， 必 在 深 山 窮 澤 之 中 ， 非 豪 民 不 能 通 其 利 。 異 時 ， 鹽 鐵 未 籠 ， 布 衣 有 朐 邴 ， 人 君 有 吳 王 ，皆 鹽 鐵 初 議 也 。 吳 王 專 山 澤 之 饒 ， 薄 賦 其 民 ， 賑 贍 窮 乏， 以 成 私 威 。 私 威 積 而 逆 節 之 心 作 。 夫 不 蚤 絕 其 源 而 憂 其 末 ， 若 決 呂 梁 ， 沛 然 ， 其 所 傷 必 多 矣 。 太 公 曰 ： 『 一家 害 百 家 ， 百 家 害 諸 侯 ， 諸 侯 害 天 下 ， 王 法 禁 之 。 』 今 放 民 於 權 利 ， 罷 鹽 鐵 以 資 暴 彊 ， 遂 其 貪 心 ， 眾 邪 群 聚 ，私 門 成 黨 ， 則 強 禦 日 以 不 制 ， 而 并 兼 之 徒 姦 形 成 也 。 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 民 人 藏 於 家 ， 諸 侯 藏 於 國 ， 天 子 藏 於 海 內 。 故 民 人 以 垣 墻 為 藏 閉 ， 天 子 以 四 海 為 匣 匱 。 天 子 適 諸 侯 ， 升 自 阼 階 ， 諸 侯 納 管 鍵 ， 執 策 而 聽 命 ， 示 莫 為 主 也 。 是 以 王 者 不 畜 聚 ， 下 藏 於 民 ， 遠 浮 利 ， 務 民 之 義； 義 禮 立 ， 則 民 化 上 。 若 是 ， 雖 湯 、 武 生 存 於 世 ， 無 所 容 其 慮 。 工 商 之 事 ， 歐 冶 之 任 ， 何 姦 之 能 成 ？ 三 桓 專 魯， 六 卿 分 晉 ， 不 以 鹽 鐵 。 故 權 利 深 者 ， 不 在 山 海 ， 在 朝廷 ； 一 家 害 百 家 ， 在 蕭 墻 ， 而 不 在 朐 邴 也 。 」
大 夫 曰 ： 「 山 海 有 禁 ， 而 民 不 傾 ； 貴 賤 有 平 ， 而 民 不 疑 。 縣 官 設 衡 立 準 ， 人 從 所 欲 ， 雖 使 五 尺 童 子 適 市， 莫 之 能 欺 。 今 罷 去 之 ， 則 豪 民 擅 其 用 而 專 其 利 。 決 市 閭 巷 ， 高 下 在 口 吻 ， 貴 賤 無 常 ， 端 坐 而 民 豪 ， 是 以 養 強 抑 弱 而 藏 於 跖 也 。 彊 養 弱 抑 ， 則 齊 民 消 ； 若 眾 穢 之 盛 而 害 五 穀 。 一 家 害 百 家 ， 不 在 朐 邴 ， 如 何 也 ？ 」
文 學 曰 ： 「 山 海 者 ， 財 用 之 寶 路 也 。 鐵 器 者 ， 農夫 之 死 士 也 。 死 士 用 ， 則 仇 讎 滅 ， 仇 讎 滅 ， 則 田 野 闢 ，田 野 闢 而 五 穀 熟 。 寶 路 開 ， 則 百 姓 贍 而 民 用 給 ， 民 用 給 則 國 富 。 國 富 而 教 之 以 禮 ， 則 行 道 有 讓 ， 而 工 商 不 相 豫， 人 懷 敦 樸 以 相 接 ， 而 莫 相 利 。
夫 秦 、 楚 、 燕 、 齊 ， 土 力 不 同 ， 剛 柔 異 勢 ， 巨 小 之 用 ， 居 句 之 宜 ， 黨 殊 俗 易 ，各 有 所 便 。 縣 官 籠 而 一 之 ， 則 鐵 器 失 其 宜 ， 而 農 民 失 其 便 。 器 用 不 便 ， 則 農 夫 罷 於 野 而 草 萊 不 辟 。 草 萊 不 辟 ，則 民 困 乏 。
故 鹽 冶 之 處 ， 大 傲 皆 依 山 川 ， 近 鐵 炭 ， 其 勢 咸 遠 而 作 劇 。 郡 中 卒 踐 更 者 ， 多 不 勘 ， 責 取 庸 代 。
縣 邑 或 以 戶 口 賦 鐵 ， 而 賤 平 其 準 。 良 家 以 道 次 發 僦 運 鹽 、 鐵， 煩 費 ， 百 姓 病 苦 之 。 愚 竊 見 一 官 之 傷 千 里 ， 未 睹 其 在 朐 邴 也 。 」
Chapter V. Hindrance to Farming
a. The Lord Grand Secretary: If a private individual have an article of value, he places it in a box or cabinet and keeps it. 1 Then what if a Ruler possesses the mountains and the seas? Now the sources of power and profit are assuredly in the mountain fastnesses and the depths of the marshes. Only aggressive people can come at their wealth. In another time, before the sequestration of salt and iron, there was among the smock-frocked 2 people one Ping of Chü, and among the princes was the King of Wu; 3 then the salt and iron monopoly first came up as a matter of discussion. The King of Wu took sole control of the surplus products of the mountains and marshes, taxed his people lightly and gave doles to the poor and humble. Thus he established his personal prestige; when his personal prestige was increased, his heart was moved to rebellion. Thus you see if you do not stop the source early and only worry about the outcome, as in the bursting through of Lü Liang, 4 the damage will be very great. As T'ai Kung 5 said: Onefamily would harm a hundred families, a hundred families would harm the nobles, and the nobles would harm the ruler of the Empire. This is why the prohibitory laws are made to prevent it. Now to give the people free rein to strive after power and profit and to end the salt and iron monopoly would be to give the advantage to the overbearing and aggressive in the pursuit of their covetous practices. All the evil-minded would come together, cliques would become parties — for the aggressive if not constantly curbed are ungovernable — and combines of disorderly persons would take form.
b. The Literati: The people have their wealth at home; the Princes have theirs in the states; the Emperor has his in the land within the seas. Therefore the people use walls for their hiding-places while the Emperor has all the land within the seas as a treasure-chest. The Emperor in visiting a Prince, ascends the steps of the Prince's palace. The Prince offers him the official keys, and holding the whip, waits attentive for orders. This shows that he is not the lord there. That is, the ruler does not collect his wealth but keeps it out among the people. He keeps away from fleeting profit and makes the social duties of the people his chief concern. When their social duties and the rules of intercourse 6 are established, then the people will pattern themselves after the ruler. Even if T'ang and Wu were still living, they would have no cause for anxiety. 7 The business of the workmen and the merchants, the duties of the iron smelters 8 — what evil could grow out of these? The three Huan 9 maintained the sole control of Lu, and the Six Ministers 10 divided between them the administration of Chin without the use of the salt and iron monopoly. Thus we see that the sources of power and profit are not in the mountains and the seas but in the court. That one family harms a hundred families lies behind the gate screen 11 of the [ruler's] household and not in such fellows as Ping of Chü.
c. The Lord Grand Secretary: With restrictions upon the mountains and the seas, the people are not subverted. With the establishment of equilibrium in prices, the people are not suspicious. When the magistrates set up standard weights and measures, the people obtain what they desire. 12 Even a lad only five feet tall may be sent to the market and no one could cheat him. If now the monopolies be removed, then aggressive persons would control the use and engross the profits. They would dominate the market; prices would be raised or lowered at a word; there would be no stability in prices, dear or cheap. These people would be sitting firmly and would grow more aggressive. This would serve to nourish the powerful and depress the weak, and the nation's wealth would be hoarded by thieves. Nourish the powerful and depress the weak and the rank and file of law-abiding people will dwindle away. It would be like letting the weeds flourish and spoiling the grain. One family harms a hundred families, forsooth, if this does not apply to such as Ping of Chü, what does it mean?
d. The Literati: The material basis 13 for economic prosperity is in the mountains and seas; life and death for the farmers lie in their implements of iron. When these arbiters of life and death are ready at hand to use, then enmity will perish; when enmity perishes, then waste land will be under cultivation; when waste land is cultivated, then grain ripens and the road to economic prosperity is opened; when the road to prosperity is opened, then the common people will be fed and their needs met; when the people's needs are met, then the nation is prosperous; when the nation is prosperous and instruction is given according to the rules of propriety, then there will be courtesy in giving way in passing on the road and the artisans and merchants will not compete with one another. Men will cultivate simplicity and sincerity, with the result that they will seek to share with others, and none will seek profit at the expense of another.
e. Now in Ch'in, Ch'u, Yen and Ch'i 14 the quality of the soil differs. There is variety in the methods of cultivation of heavy and light soils. The use of large or small, the suitability of straight or curved ploughs, 15 are different according to districts and customs. Each has its convenient use. But when the magistrates establish monopolies and standardize, then iron implements lose their suitability, and the farming population loses their convenient use. When the tools are not suited to their use, the farmer is exhausted in the fields, and grass and weeds are not kept down. When the grass and weeds cannot be kept down, then the people are wearied to the point of despair.
f. Because the places where salt is crystalized and iron smelted are in most cases in mountains and on rivers near to iron and coal, 16 their operation is all remote and their working is laborious. The shifts of laborers are assembled in the demesnes without any investigation as to their liability.
g. Utilizing conscripted labor, the county and city magistrates sometimes cheapen the equalized price and make per capita levies [through forced sales]. People of good families are forced in their turn to work on the roads. The transport of salt and iron cause trouble and expense; cities are in doubt as to their population; the people suffer bitterly. As I see it, a single magistrate damages a thousand hamlets. All this trouble is not because of such as Ping of Chü.
1. Cf. Lun-yü, IX, xii.
2. 布 衣: the common people, the peasants, later "cotton-clothed", but not at this time when cotton was probably unknown. The T'zŭ-yüan quotes this passage.
3. Chang's note on this passage reads: In the Huo-chih-chuan (Shih-chi, CXXIX) it is recorded that the people of Lu 魯 were commonly industrious. A certain Ts'ao Ping 曹 邴 through an iron-smelting industry brought unusual prosperity to many tens of thousands in Tsou and Lu, so that many neglected letters and learning and hastened after profit, after the example of Ts'ao Ping. It is said that this prosperity arose at Lin Chü 臨 朐, therefore he is called Ping of Chü. The King of Wu, by name P'i 濞, coined money and evaporated sea water [for salt], so that revenue for his state was abundant. Then he pleaded sick, absented himself from Court, and secretly nourished plans of rebellion.
4. 呂 梁: the mountain, which Yü pierced, in order to permit the waters of the Great Flood to escape. Shu-ching, Yü-kung, Legge, Chinese Classics, Vol. III, Pt. I, 95, note.
5. 太 公. Source of quotation unknown.
6. 義, 禮.
7. 湯、武, i. e., these ancient paragons of government by example, would find times unchanged.
8. The offices of Ou-yeh 歐 冶, the excellent sword-maker of ancient times.
9. 三 桓, "the three families", the descendants of Duke Huan, who ruled Lu 魯. Cf. Legge, Analects, XVI, iii, note.
10. 六 卿: the six hereditary ministers of state from the six clans of Chin 晉 in the Ch'un-ch'iu period. Three were in time overthrown, while three increased in power and partitioned Chin, forming three out of seven of the Warring States.
11. Paraphrasing the Lun-yü, XVI, i, 18.
12. 人 從 所 欲. Lu reads 而 人 得 其 所 . . . ., which I follow.
13. 財 用 之 寶 也. Supply 路 after 寶 to make it agree with the line below: "then grain ripens and the road to economic . . . . .". Chang is followed in the translation: 五 穀 熟 [ 而 寶 路 開 (omitted by Wang)] 寶 路 開 則 百 姓 . . . .
15. 居 局: read 侷 句. Cf. Chou-li, 冬 官 考 工 記: straight ploughs for hard earth, curved ones for soft 堅 地 欲 直 庇 柔 地 欲 句 庇.
16. 炭, also mentioned in Ch. X. Whether coal or char-coal is meant, is not evident.
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