BY THOMAS JEFFERSON To know what architectural books were at hand is particularly important in Jefferson's case on account of his dependence on books for his inspiration. Knowledge of those which he owned at the time of making any given design will almost always enable one to identify its prototypes, and conversely, they cannot often, in his isolation, have been drawn from other sources. Such knowledge has already been utilized in the text and in the notes to the drawings; it now remains to show the sources of this information and present them in complete and systematic form.

Note: p90m1 Jefferson really collected two libraries, the first, much the larger, being sold to the national government in 1815, and the second, willed to the University of Virginia, having to be dispersed by sale in 1829 to assist in the settlement of Jefferson's estate. Of the first we have two catalogues, Jefferson's own, in manuscript, preserved by the Massachusetts Historical Society, and the one printed by the Government, prepared by him on the basis of this, but showing only the books actually received. Note: p90f1 Both are classified on a system developed by Jefferson, with a special chapter devoted to architecture. Of the later library we have the catalogue of the sale of 1829, Note: p90f2 although this was not quite exhaustive, as is shown by the catalogue of a residue sold in 1873. Note: p90f3

Note: p90m2
By far the most important of all these for our purpose is the manuscript catalogue, which, by evidences of ink, handwriting, and spacing, in connection with other circumstances, betrays the periods at which the books were acquired.
The entries as a whole may be easily divided into two principle groups, evidently written at different times, with some others additional. Note: p90m3 Those of one group, in lighter ink and a regular hand, are more widely spaced; they occur, after a certain point, only on the left-hand pages. Those of the other group are written in a darker ink and in a smaller, less careful hand partly between the lines of the first (or over lines which have been erased), partly on blank pages opposite. The presumption is that the interlineations and hence the whole second group, are the later in date. This is confirmed bv the correspondence of the other entries with two endorsements on the fly leaf: " 1783 Mar. 6, 2640 vols." and "\/ this mark denotes the books I have, those unmarked I mean to procure" -- their ink and handwriting are identical with those of the entries presumed to be earlier, the entries checked give a number of volumes agreeing with the number stated. The catalogue, then, was first prepared on the eve of Jefferson's departure for Europe, doubtless with a view to guiding his purchase of books, and with room for later entering the books to be acquired.

Note: p91m1 The subdivision of the remaining entries is facilitated by a notebook, likewise preserved by the Massachusetts Historical Society, which evidently served for entering temporarily the titles of books bought while abroad. It contains only titles which occur in the second main group in the catalogue, and includes the majority of those in that group, but not all. The presence in it of Clérisseau's Antiquités de France , known to have been purchased abroad, confirms the idea advanced regarding the book as a whole. The entries of the second group in the catalogue which do not occur in this notebook are found in every case to exhibit some peculiarity that betrays a later date of acquisition they are written in a grayer, more watery ink, are still further interlined, or added at the top or bottom of the columns. Most of them, furthermore, are for works published after 1789, which must naturally have been acquired at later dates.

Note: p91m2 This interpretation of the entries in the manuscript catalogue is uniformly verified by other evidences which are available. These include book bills, giving a definite date, and binding bills, which, like datable quotations, references, or tracings by Jefferson, give a terminus ante quem . It is accordingly possible to assert with confidence the period, and in some cases the exact dates, at which every book was in Jefferson's possession.

Note: p91m3 Jefferson's own copies of the works today, were they accessible, might assist in the study of his designs, as well as of his general knowledge of architecture, through marginal annotations or evidences of wear on certain plates. Unfortunately the later collection was dispersed, the earlier suffered severely by the fire in the Library of Congress in 1851, which destroyed, among many other books, the greater part of those on architecture. Note: p91f1 The Catalogue of the Library of Congress published in 1861 indicates but five architectural books as having belonged to Jefferson, and of these not all seem to be still preserved. A single one of them, Chambray's Parallèle bears an annotation in his hand -- a mere reference to drawings of the same subject in other books.

Note: p91m4 Below are given, in an arrangement alphabetical by authors, the titles of the various books on architecture and gardening which Jefferson owned at one time or another, with the dates of their acquisition and of their disposal, by him or his heirs, so far as these dates are ascertainable. Each title is printed first exactly as it appears in Jefferson's manuscript catalogue, or, in the case books not appearing there, as in the catalogue of the sale of 1829. Amplifications are then made where they are necessary to identify the book and edition (in case this is possible), and where a fuller or more correct title helps to define the influences under which Jefferson worked. For books purchased by Congress the edition is revealed directly by the Catalogue of the Library of Congress, 1840, which indicates the works derived from Jefferson. In few other cases where the edition which Jefferson owned is doubtful, the principal editions of the work are described. Where no reference is given for date of acquisition this is deduced from the entry in the manuscript catalog as explained above.

title Date of acquisition Date of sale Alberti, Leone Battista 1785-89 Note: p92f1 1815 Note: p92f2 Architettura del Alberti. p. 4 to (L' architettura di Leonbatista Alberti; tradotta in lingua fiorentina da Cosimo Bartoli . . . Con la aggiunta de' disegni. Venetia, 1565.) Becker, W. G. After 1798 Note: p92f3 1815 Note: p92f2 Plans d'Architecture par Becker . 4 cahiers (Neue Garten und Landschafts-Gebäude, Leipz 1798.) 1816 Note: p92f4 1829 Note: p92f5 Bibliotheque d'Architecture de Iombert. 4 v 8vo. Vignola, Palladio, Scamozzi et Chambray. (1766 Note: p92f4 ) . . . see also Freart de Chambray, and Palladio. Before 1783 1815 Note: p92f2 The Builder's dictionary. 2V. 8 vo (The builder's dictionary: or, Gentleman and architect's companion. Explaining not only the terms of art in all the several parts of architecture, but also containing the theory and practice of the various branches thereof. . . . London, 1734.) Jefferson's own copy is still in the Library of Congress. Castell, Robert. 1785-89 Note: p92f1 1815 Note: p92f2 Castell's Villas of the Antients. g. fol. (The villas of the ancients illustrated. London, 1728.) Chambers, Sir William. About 1771 Note: p92f6 1815 Note: p92f2 Chambers's Chinese designs. g. fol. (Designs of Chinese buildings, furniture, dresses, machines, and utensils, engraved by the best hands from the originals in China, by Mr. Chambers . . . to which is annexed a description of their temples, houses, gardens, etc. London, 1757.) Before 1783 1815 Note: p93f1 Chambers' view of Kew gardens. g.fol. (Plans, elevations, sections, and perspective views of the gardens and buildings at Kew, in Surry. London, 1763.) Chippendale, Thomas. After 1789 1815 Note: p93f1 Chippendale's Cabinetmaker's Designs. fol. (Gentleman and cabinet-maker's directory; being a collection of . . . designs of household furniture in the Gothic, Chinese and modern taste . . . (with) a short explanation of the five orders of architecture . . . 3d ed. London, 1755.) Clérisseau, Charles Louis. 1785-86 Note: p93f2 1815 Note: p93f1 Monumens de Nismes de Clerissault. g. fol. (Antiquités de la France, par M. Clérisseau. . . Première partie. On cover: Monumens de Nismes. Paris, 1778.) Delorme, Philibert. 1785-89 Note: p93f3 1815 Note: p93f1 De Lorme. Invention pour batir les couvertures courbes. fol. (Nouvelles inventions pour bien bastir a petits fraiz, trouvées naguères par Philibert de l'Orme. Paris, 1576.) Desgodetz, Antoine. 1791 Note: p93f4 1815 Note: p93f1 Edifices anciennes de Rome par Desgodetz. fol. Paris. 1779. (Les Edifices antiques de Rome, mesurés & dessinés très-exactement sur les lieux, par feu M. Desgodetz. Paris, 1779.) Donatus, Alex. About 1778 Note: p93f5 1815 Note: p93f1 Roma illustrata Donati. 4 to (Roma Vetus ac Recens utriusque Aedificiis Illustrata; Amstellodami, 1695.) Etienne, Jean d'. 1785-89 Note: p93f3 1815 Note: p93f1 Etienne d'un Ciment impenetrable à l'eau. (Mémoire sur la découverte d'un ciment impénétrable à l'eau. Par M. d'Etienne. . . Paris, 1782.) Ficoroni, Francesco de. Ficoroni, Francesco de'. 1785-89 Note: p94f1 1815 Note: p94f2 Ficoroni. Vestigia e rarita di Roma. 4to (Le vestigia e rarita di Roma antica. . . Roma, 1744. Vol. 2. has the Le singolarita di Roma moderna.) Fréart de Chambray, Roland. After 1789 1815 Note: p94f2 Bibliotheque d'Architecture de Jombert. partie 4 me viz. Parallele de l'architecture antique et Moderne par Errard et Chambray. 8 vo (Parallele de l'architecture antique avec la moderne, suivant les dix principaux auteurs qui ont écrit sur les cinq ordres. Par MM. Errard & de Chambray. Nouv. ed., augm. des piedestaux pour les cinq ordres, suivant les mêmes auteurs, et du parallele de M. Errard avec M. Perrault, &c. Par Charles Antoine Jombert. Paris, 1766.) Jefferson's own copy is still in the Library of Congress. . . . see also Bibliothèque d'architecture. Gibbs, James. About 1771 Note: p94f3 1815 Note: p94f2 Gibbs's designs for buildings. g. fol. (A book of architecture, containing designs of buildings and ornaments. London, 1728.) About 1769? Note: p94f4 Gibbs's rules for drawing in Architecture. fol. (Rules for drawing the several parts of architecture, in a more exact and easy manner than has been heretofore practised, by which all fractions, in dividing the principal members and their parts, are avoided. The 3d ed. London, 1753.) Halfpenny, Williiam. About 1778 Note: p94f5 1815 Note: p94f2 Halfpenny's practical architecture. 12 mo. (Practical architecture, or a sure guide to the true working according to the rules of that science, representing the five orders, with their . . . doors and windows, taken from Inigo Jones and other architects. To each plate tables containing the exact proportions of the several parts. . . [These are the "practical" features of the book, to save calculation of exactly the sort Jefferson constantly made.] London, 1724.) Heely, Joseph. 1785-89 Note: p95f1 1815 Note: p95f2 Heely on the gardens of Hagley. 2V. 12 mo. (Letters on the beauties of Hagley, Envil, and the Leasowes, London, 1777.) Jones, Inigo. About 1778 Note: p95f3 Inigo Jones's & Ld. Burlington's Designs by Kent. g. fol. (The designs of Inigo Jones, consisting of plans and elevations for publick and private buildings. Published by William Kent, with some additional designs. . . London, 1727.) Kersaint, Armand Guy. After 1792 Note: p95f4 1815 Note: p95f2 Discours sur les monumens publiques. par Kersaint. 4 to. (Paris, 1792.) Kirby, Joshua. 1785-89 Note: p95f1 1815 Note: p95f2 Kirby's perspective of architecture on Brook Taylor's principles. 2v. g. fol. (The perspective of architecture. A work entirely new; deduced from the principles of Dr. Brook Taylor; and performed by two rules only of universal application. . . London, 1761.) The method was that of parallel perspective with the. vanishing point far to one side, as used in Jefferson's bird's eye view of the University of Virginia described later among the drawings in possession of the University. Krafft, Johann Carl. 1802-05 Note: p95f5 1815 Note: p95f2 Plans des maisons de Paris par Krafft et Ransonnette. fol. (Plans, Forms, Elevations of the most Remarkable Houses and Hotels erected in Paris and its Environs, [in English, French and German,] Paris, 1801-02 .) La Faye, Polycarpe de. 1785-89 Note: p95f1 1815 Note: p95f2 De la Faye sur la chaux des Romans. 8 vo (Recherches sur la préparation que les Romains donnoient à la chaux, dont ils se servoient dans leurs constructions, et sur la composition & l'emploi de leurs mortiers, Paris, 1777.) Langley, Batty. Before 1783 1815 Note: p96f1 Langley's practical geometry. fol. (Practical Geometry, applied to the Arts of Building, Surveying, &c. London, 1729.) Le Clerc, Sébastien. 1785-89 Note: p96f2 1815 Note: p96f1 Architecture de Le Clerc. 4 to. (Traité d'architecture, avec des remarques et des observations tresutiles pour les jeunes gens, qui veulent s'appliquer à ce bel art. Paris, 1714.) Le Roy, Julien David. Before 1807 Note: p96f3 1815 Note: p96f1 Ruins of Athens, by Le Roy. fol. (Le Roy, J. D.: Ruins of Athens, with Remains and other valuable Antiquities in Greece, folio; London, 1759.) Lubersac de Livron, Charles Françols de. 1785-89 1815 Note: p96f1 Lubersac sur les monumens publiques. fol. (Discours sur les Monumens publics de tous les âges & de tous les Peuples connus, suivi d'une description du monument projeté à la gloire de Louis XVI & de la France, par M. l'Abb‚ de Lubersac. Paris, 1775.) Mascheroni, Lorenzo. 1785-89 1815 Note: p96f1 Nuove ricerche sull equilibrio delle volte del Abate Mascheroni. 4 to. (Bergamo, 1785.) Meinert, Friederich. 1798-1805 Note: p96f4 1815 Note: p96f1 Landbaukunst von Meinert. 4 cahiers. (Schöne Landbaukunst, Leipzig, 1798.) Milizia, Francesco. 1824 Note: p96f5 1829 Note: p96f6 Principi di Architettura Civile dal Milizia. 3. vols. 8vo. Bassano, 1813. (Principj di architettura civile. 3. ed. riv., emend. ed accresciuta di figure da G. B. Cipriani. Bassano, 1813.) Mitchell, Robert. 1801-05 Note: p96f4 Mitchell's Perspectives of buildings in Eng ld Scot ld gr. fol. Fr. Eng. (Plans and Views in Perspective, with Descriptions of Buildings in England and Scotland, and an Essay on Grecian, Roman, and Gothic Architecture. . . London, 1801 .) Mitford, William. After 1819 Note: p97f1 1829 Note: p97f2 Mitford's Principles of Architecture. 8 vo. (Principles of design in architecture traced in observations on buildings primeval, Egyptian, Phoenician . . . in a series of letters. . . London, 1819. 2nd ed. 1824) Morris, Robert. Before 1783 Morris's select architecture. 4 to. (Select architecture. Being . . . designs of plans . . . well suited to both town and country . . . from the plain town house to the stately hotel . . . from the . . . farm house to the parochial church. . . Also bridges, baths, summer houses, &c. Ill. with 50 Copper Plates. 4 to. ) Title from advertisement in Morris's Architecture Improved. Palladio, Andrea. Before 1783 1815 Note: p97f3 Palladio by Leoni. Ital. Fr. and Eng. 2v. fol. (The architecture of A. Palladio in four books; . . . to which are added several notes and observations made by Inigo Jones. . . Revised, designed and published by Giacomo Leoni. Translated from the Italian. . . London, 1715. Ital., Eng., and Fr. ) About 1769? Note: p97f4 1815 Note: p97f3 Palladio by Leoni with Inigo Jones's notes. fol. (The architecture of A. Palladio; in four books. . .Revis'd . . . by Giacomo Leoni. . . The 3d ed. cor. With notes and remarks of Inigo Jones. . .And also, an appendix, containing The antiquities of Rome. Written by A. Palladio. And a discourse of the fires of the ancients. . . London, 1742.) 1785-89 Note: p97f5 Palladio's first book of architecture, with Le Muet on doors & windows. 8 vo. (First book of architecture, translated out of Italian, with an appendix touching doors and windows by P. Le Muet, translated out of French by G. Richards. London, 1663. 2nd ed., corrected and enlarged, London, 1688; 3d, London, 1766; 7th . . .with the new model of the Cathedral of St. Paul's in London,. . . London, 1708; 12th, 1733.) 1785-89 Note: p98f1 1815 Note: p98f2 Palladio les 4 livres d architecture par de Chambray. fol. (The first French translation, Paris, 1650.) After 1789 1815 Note: p98f2 d o (i.e., Bibliothèque d'Architecture de Jombert) 2 de partie Architecture de Palladio. 8 vo. (Architecture de Palladio, contenant les cinq ordres d'architecture, suivant cet auteur, ses observations sur la manière de bien bâtir, & son traité des grands chemins & des ponts, tant de charpente que de maçonnerie. Nouv. éd. Paris, 1764.) . . . see also Bibliothèque d'architecture. Patte, Pierre. 1785-89 Note: p98f1 1815 Note: p98f2 Monumens de Louis XV. par Patte. g. fol. (Monumens érigés en France à la gloire de Louis XV . . . suivis d'un choix des principaux projets qui ont été proposés, pour placer la statue du roi dans les différens quartiers de Paris: par M. Patte. . .Paris, 1765.) Perrault, Claude. 1785-89 Note: p98f1 1815 Note: p98f2 Perrault's five orders of Architecture by James. fol. (A treatise of the five orders of columns in architecture, viz., Toscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and composite. . . To which is annex'd, a discourse concerning pilasters: and of several abuses introduc'd into architecture. Written in French by Claude Perrault. . . Made English by John James.. . London, 1708.) Piranesi, Giovanni Battista. Before 1805 Note: p98f3 Piranesi. Varie vedute di Roma antica e moderna. fol. (Binder's title to a miscellaneous selection of plates, with date 1748.) 1800-05 Note: p98f4 Portefeuille des artistes. 4 cahiers. (Porte-Feuille des Artistes; ou Collection de Desseins et de Plans, pour servir à l'Ornement des Chateaux, Maisons, &c., I e v o. Leipsic, 1800.) Preti, Francesco Maria. 1785-89 Note: p99f1 1815 Note: p99f2 Elementi di Architettura del Preti. (Venezia, 1780.) Rossi, Filippo de. 1785-89 Note: p99f1 1815 Note: p99f2 Ritratto di Roma Antiqua. 12 mo. (Ritratto di Roma antica, nel quale sono figurati i principali tempij, teatri. . . Roma. 1645.) The Library of Congress catalogue of 1840 gives 1654 for Jefferson's copy, but this seems to be a misprint. Rossi, Giovanni Giacomo de and Giovanni Battista Falda. 1785-89 Note: p99f1 1815 Note: p99f2 Ritratto di Roma moderna. 12 mo. (Roma, 1652.) Roland de Virloys, Charles François. 1785-89 Note: p99f1 1815 Note: p99f2 Dictionnaire d'Architecture, civile, militaire et navale. par Roland de Virloys. 3v. in 2. 4 to. (Paris 1770-71.) Sanvitale, Frederigo. 1785-89 Note: p99f1 1815 Note: p99f2 Elementi di Architettura del Padre Sanivitali. 4 to. (Brescia, 1765.) Scamozzi, Vincenzo. 1785-89 Note: p99f1 1815 Note: p99f2 Antichita di Roma. fol. (Discorsi sopra 1' Antichita di Roma, Venitia, 1582.) 1785-89 Note: p99f1 1815 Note: p99f2 Les cinq Ordres d'Architecture de Scamozzi par Daviler. fol. (Les cinq ordres d'architecture de Vincent Scamozzi . . . tirez du sixiéme livre de son Idée generale d'architecture . . . Par Augustin Charles d'Aviler. . . Paris, 1685.) About 1778 Note: p99f3 1815 Note: p99f4 Scamozzi's architecture by Leyburn. p. 4 to. (The mirror of architecture: or, The ground-rules of the art of building. Exactly laid down by Vincent Scamozzi. . . With The description and use of a joint-rule. . . By John Brown. The 7th ed. Whereunto is added, A compendium of the art of building. . . By William Leybubn (!) London, 1734. Added title page: Architectionice: or, A compendium of the art of building. . . By William Leyburn. London, 1734. ) . . . see also Bibliothèque d'architectre. Seeley, B. 1785-89 Note: p100f1 1815 Note: p100f2 Description of Stowe. 8 vo. (Description of the House and Gardens at Stowe. 8vo Buckingham, 1783.) Serlio, Sebastiano. 1785-89 Note: p100f1 1815 Note: p100f2 I1 Settimo libro d' Architettura del Serglio. Ital. Lat. fol. (I1 settimo libro d' architettvra, nel qvale si tratta di molti accidenti, che possono occorr' al architètto, in diuersi luoghi, et istrane forme de siti, è nelle restauramenti, o restitutioni di case. . .Francofvrti ad Moenum, 1575. Title-page and text in Italian and Latin.) Smeaton, John. 1785-89 Note: p100f1 1815 Note: p100f2 Smeaton's Narrative of Eddystone lighthouse. (Narrative of the Building, and a Description of the Construction of the Edystone Lighthouse. gr. fol. London, 1791 .) Stuart, James. 1785-89 Note: p100f1 1815 Note: p100f2 Ruins of Athens, by Stuart & Revett. g. fol. (The antiquities of Athens measured and delineated by James Stuart . . . and Nicholas Revett. I st vol. London, 1761.) Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi, il. 1785-89 Note: p100f1 1815 Note: p100f2 Regola delle cinque ordine d' Architettura del Vignola. fol. (Regola delli cinque ordini d'architettura. Con la nuova aggionta di Michel'angelo Buonaroti . . . Amsterdam, 1¢19.) . . . see also Bibliothèqse d' architecture. Vitruvius Pollio. Before 1775 Note: p100f3 1815 Note: p100f2 L'Architecture de Vitruve de Perrault. fol. (Les dix livres d'architecture de Vitruve, corrigez et tradvits nouvellement en françois, avec des notes & des figures. 2. ed. rev., cor., & augm. Par M. Perrault. . . Paris, 1684.) 1819 Note: p100f4 1829 Note: p100f5 Abregè de Vitruve. 12 mo. (Architecture de Vitruve reduite en abrégé par Perrault. Paris, (1674.) Whately, Thomas. Before 1783 1815 Note: p101f1 Observations on Modern Gardening by Whately. 8 vo. (London, 1770.) 1785-89 Note: p101f2 Whately's Observations on modern gardening. 8 vo. 1821 Note: p101f3 1829 Note: p101f4 Wheatley on Modern Gardening. 8 vo. Lond. Wood, Robert. 1785-89 Note: p101f2 1815 Note: p101f1 Ruins of Balbec, by Wood & Dawkins. g. fol. (The ruins of Balbec, otherwise Heliopolis in Coelosyria. London, 1757.) Ware, Isaac. After 1814 1829 Note: p101f4 A Complete Body of Architecture, fol. (ascribed to Inigo Jones) by Ware. (A complete body of architecture, adorned with plans and elevations, from original designs. By Isaac Ware. . . In which are interspersed some designs of Inigo Jones, never before published. London, 1756. 2d ed., 1767.)

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